2) to be the cause or origin of
Eg. Import accounts for a very high proportion of our national revenue.
7. to have (little or) no relation to the matter at hand: to be little or not related to sth.
Eg. Some people don’t care about the preservation of wild animals, for they think it has no relation to the matter at hand.
8. much less (also still less):
and even less likely;
Eg. She wouldn’t take a drink, still/much less stay for dinner.
9. given (that) prep. taking into account
Notice that “given” is followed by a noun phrase, while “given that” is followed by a finite clause.
Eg. Given her interest in children, teaching should be the right career for her.
10. whereas conj.
but, in contrast: while
Eg. Their country has plenty of oil, whereas/ while ours has none.
11. in one’s eyes: in the opinion or judgment of someone
Eg. The expert is always right in the eyes of everybody.
12. Compare: worth, worthy, worthwhile
worth It is worth (doing) sth.
worthy Sth. is worthy of + n. /being done /to be done (
be worthy of: merit, deserve)
worthwhile It is worthwhile doing/to do sth.
The matter is worth consideration/considering.
The matter is worthy of consideration/being/to be considered.
It is worthwhile considering/to consider the matter.
B. Typical Patterns:
1. as if +
: as if
Eg. Time is treated as if it were something almost real.
2. be + increasingly
Eg. People are increasingly aware of the importance of being healthy.
It is considered +adj.+to do sth.
Sb. /Sth. is taken as …
Eg. It is considered impolite to work too quickly.
It is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem.
4. subject +predicate +object, much less… “
Eg. People in the desert are always short of water to drink, much less to bathe in.
The baby can’t even walk, much less/ let alone run.
5. the +